A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing:
A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives*
A statement of a learning objective contains a verb (an action) and an object (usually a noun).
- The verb generally refers to [actions associated with] the intended cognitive process.
- The object generally describes the knowledge students are expected to acquire or construct.
(Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001, pp. 4–5)
The cognitive process dimension represents a continuum of increasing cognitive complexity—from remember to create. Anderson and Krathwohl identify 19 specific cognitive processes that further clarify the bounds of the six categories (Table 1).
Table 1. The cognitive processes dimension — categories, cognitive processes (and alternative names)
(clarifying, paraphrasing, representing, translating)
(concluding, extrapolating, interpolating, predicting)
(contrasting, mapping, matching)
(discriminating, distinguishing, focusing, selecting)
(finding coherence, integrating, outlining, parsing, structuring)
(coordinating, detecting, monitoring, testing)
(Table 1 adapted from Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001, pp. 67–68.)
The knowledge dimension represents a range from concrete (factual) to abstract (metacognitive) (Table 2). Representation of the knowledge dimension as a number of discrete steps can be a bit misleading. For example, all procedural knowledge may not be more abstract than all conceptual knowledge. And metacognitive knowledge is a special case. In this model, "metacognitive knowledge is knowledge of [one's own] cognition and about oneself in relation to various subject matters . . . " (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001, p. 44).
Table 2. The knowledge dimension — major types and subtypes
knowledge of terminology
knowledge of specific details and elements
knowledge of classifications and categories
knowledge of principles and generalizations
knowledge of theories, models, and structures
knowledge of subject-specific skills and algorithms
knowledge of subject-specific techniques and methods
knowledge of criteria for determining when to use appropriate procedures
knowledge about cognitive tasks, including appropriate contextual and conditional knowledge
(Table 2 adapted from Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001, p. 46.).